** The Telegraph reported Israel will use novel sponge bombs as it fights through the network of [Palestinian] tunnels under Gaza. The Israel Defense Forces has been testing the chemical bombs, which contain no explosives but are used to seal off gaps or tunnel entrances from which fighters may emerge.
These “sticky sponge bombs” are not new. USGOV experimented with them forty years ago in the contest of “less lethal” crowd control. It’s a way of sealing a tunnel (and tunnel vents) without using explosives. The foam comes in configurations. In some chemical options, it hardens like concrete. In others, it’s so sticky that the foam adheres to your skin if exposed, and you need a chemical “antidote” to remove it. Israel may layer these options so you break through the concrete layer with picks, shovels, and shaped charges only to find thirty feet of toxic spongy goo. Then more concrete sponge.
** Zero Hedge reported, The IDF has entered a full ground assault phase of their operation as heavy aerial bombardment continues. But Israeli officials in the last hours have dubbed this another expanded raid. However you characterize it, they’re mopping up the surface resistance to the extent possible before sending in the infantry and engineers to do the detail work.
** Jules adds a sparkle to life.
** When does Congress plan to release all of the January 6 videos?
** In 2002, Anthony Harris, along with a team of scholars from the University of Massachusetts and Harvard, published their landmark research in the journal Homicide Studies. They concluded that advances in medical technology between 1960 and 1999 cut the reported murder rate to a third—and in some instances, even to a quarter—of what it would have been otherwise. The leaps and bounds of lifesaving technology that have emerged in the decades since have had a similar impact on the ability of first responders, medical professionals, and even everyday citizens to save the lives of victims of violence, thus preventing ever more murders.
From the Days of Fighting Sail
By the late sixteenth century, the mariner’s compass had evolved into an instrument not very different from the compass of today. The case in which the compass itself is housed was made of wood or ivory in the early days. After that, brass came into use since it does not affect the magnetic needle.
The Pole Star (Polaris) served as the seaman’s lodestar (or star that shows the way). Therefore the magnetic stone that was used to magnetize the compass needle was called a lodestone. The magnetic, direction-finding property of the lodestone had been discovered in China as early as the twelfth century.
By the sixteenth century, the mariner’s compass was made with a soft iron wire bent to a lozenge shape and attached to the underside of a circular compass card, which was suspended at the center on an upright needle.
Because the iron wire tended to lose its magnetism over a period of time, it was necessary for each ship to carry a good lodestone to re-magnetize the wire when it weakened.
There was one basic problem encountered in the use of the mariner’s compass: The magnetized wire in the compass was drawn by large land masses. This caused the compass to have variations in its readings. The mariners and mathematicians of this early period were concerned about this problem, and a number of corrective measures were tried. However, at the time the Mayflower sailed in 1620, the problem had not been satisfactorily solved.
Mariner’s Compass 1570
In order to familiarize the pupils with the principles of the lodestone or the magnetized needle, the teacher may wish to conduct some classroom experiments. Using either a lodestone or a good, strong magnet, rub one end of a small, steel sewing needle repeatedly — moving it against the needle in the same direction with each stroke. After the needle is magnetized, set it gently in a saucer or bowl of water and watch it align itself in the north-south position.
Once the needle is functioning in its north-south alignment, try moving iron or steel objects around the bowl to show how land masses would have caused a variation in the compass reading.
Identify the Aircraft