The Newer Great Reset

I guess that you could call it the Axis of Evil, but that has been used before. The North Koreans want a slice of the pie, of course, since they’re supplying the Russian Army in the field in Ukraine (in part). The Chinese, Russians, Iran, North Korea and now Saudi Arabia is working to develop their own way forward without the West. I’m not sure how long it will last.

The Saudis are as disgusted with the Biden regime as many of this blog’s readers are. The US Deficit will end up becoming a black hole of financial ruin that will suck all near it into the vortex.

The Russians are along for the ride because the Potemkin Village is there for all to see and the Chinese Axis (was the One Road Initiative) is the only game in town for them.

At least the Communist Chinese would seem to have made some friends.



Woke Movie Points:

** Was the Rings of Power an AI-generated script? Is it an insult to JRR Tolkien? There are a lot of LOTR people on the blog and I throw it out like slapping spaghetti against the wall.

** Star Trek Discovery (homosexuals and negros in space) is clearly very woke. The geriatric Picard series is winding down. Where does Star Trek go from here?

** Gladiators are set to clash, as Those About to Die, began production today at Cinecitta Studios in Italy. Based on screenplays written by Robert Rodat,the series is described as a drama set in the complex and corrupt world of ancient Rome’s spectacle-driven gladiatorial competition. The series introduces an ensemble of characters from all corners of the Roman Empire who collide at the explosive intersection of sports, politics, and dynasties.


Identify the Aircraft


What Chopped that Tree Down?


Working in Copper

This article interested me. I realize that there is an enduring argument about the accuracy of radiocarbon dating. Credit to: Michelle Bebber, Kent State Univ.

Image: In laboratory tests, replicas of Old Copper Culture arrowheads performed about the same as stone arrowheads. That might be why Old Copper Culture people ultimately abandoned copper points after using them for thousands of years.

About 8500 years ago, hunter-gatherers living beside Eagle Lake in Wisconsin hammered out a conical, 10-centimeter-long projectile point made of pure copper. The finely crafted point, used to hunt big game, highlights a New World technological triumph—and a puzzle. A new study of that artifact and other traces of prehistoric mining concludes that what is known as the Old Copper Culture emerged, then mysteriously faded, far earlier than once thought.

The dates show that early Native Americans were among the first people in the world to mine metal and fashion it into tools. They also suggest a regional climate shift might help explain why, after thousands of years, the pioneering metallurgists abruptly stopped making most copper tools and largely returned to stone and bone implements.

Earth’s largest and purest copper deposits are found around North America’s Great Lakes. At some point, Native Americans learned to harvest the ore and heat, hammer, and grind it into tools. They left behind thousands of mines and countless copper artifacts, including lethal projectile points, hefty knives and axes, and petite fish hooks and awls. Today, it’s not uncommon to meet residents of the region “who have buckets of copper artifacts [that they’ve found] tucked away in their basements,” says David Pompeani, a geologist at Kansas State University, Manhattan, who studies ancient mining.

When researchers began to date the artifacts and mines, they saw a perplexing pattern: The dates suggested the people of the Old Copper Culture began to produce metal tools about 6000 years ago and then, for reasons that weren’t clear, mostly abandoned copper implements about 3000 years ago. After that, early Native Americans used copper mostly for smaller, less utilitarian items associated with adornments, such as beads and bracelets. “The history is just so peculiar,” in part because many other ancient cultures didn’t abandon metal tools once they learned how to make them, Pompeani says.

About 10 years ago, Pompeani began doctoral research that cast doubt on the Old Copper timeline. He extracted sediment cores from lakes adjacent to prehistoric mines on Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula and Isle Royale and measured trace metals in the cores, including lead and titanium, that had been released by processing the ore. The analyses showed copper mining began about 9500 years ago in some areas—some 3500 years earlier than once thought. It also ended earlier, about 5400 years ago, Pompeani reported in The Holocene in 2015.

Now, a team led by Pompeani presents new evidence for the revised timeline. The researchers used modern methods to reanalyze 53 radiocarbon dates—including eight newly collected dates—associated with the Old Copper Culture. Some came from wood or cordage still attached to spearpoints; others came from charcoal, wood, or bone found at mines and human burials. The oldest reliably dated artifact turned out to be the 8500-year-old projectile point found in Wisconsin.

This month in Radiocarbon, the team reports that the most reliable dates, combined with the sediment data, indicate the Old Copper Culture emerged at least 9500 years ago and peaked between 7000 and 5000 years ago. That makes it at least as old, and perhaps older, than copper-working cultures documented in the Middle East, where archaeologists have documented a copper pendant believed to be 8700 years old.

The older window for Old Copper’s peak doesn’t surprise archaeologist Michelle Bebber of Kent State University, Kent, who has studied the culture. The dates confirm “that hunter-gatherers [were] highly innovative,” she says, and willing to “regularly experiment with novel materials.”

But why did the ancient copper experiment abruptly end? Bebber’s work replicating Old Copper–style arrowheads, knives, and awls suggests they weren’t necessarily superior to the alternatives, especially after factoring in the time and effort required to produce metal implements. In controlled laboratory tests, such as shooting arrows into clay blocks that simulate meat, she found that stone and bone implements were mostly just as effective as copper. That might be because Great Lakes copper is unusually pure, which makes it soft, unlike harder natural copper alloys found elsewhere in the world, she says. Only copper awls proved superior to bone-hole punchers.

Pompeani has identified another potential contributor to Old Copper’s fade about 5000 years ago. Sediment cores, tree ring data, and other evidence suggest a sustained dry period struck the region around that time, he says. That could have fueled social and ecological disruptions that made it hard to devote time and resources to making copper tools. Over time, copper may have become something of a luxury item, used to signal social status.

Copper awls, however, bucked this trend: They required relatively little ore to make, Bebber notes, and the people of the Great Lakes continued to use them for thousands of years.



Lord High Executioner Beans still prowls the woods…


        • A recipe for taking the day by storm and getting the neurons moving in unison. Me, waiting for the early Spring snow to stop for the privilege to make a plow run. Oh joy.

          • I came somewhere closer than 1/4 inch from losing/flipping my Raptor on Lake Mary Road yesterday. I didn’t roll it but I felt it going. Close. The road had not been plowed there were 2′ drifts with cut-offs on both sides without guard rails and the snow was near white-out. I won’t go into why I was so stupid but at some point, if I’d tried to turn around, I’d have been stuck. I made it to Flagstaff, but it was touch and go. I’m ready for winter to end.

          • In the Raptor no less. Geez, that’ll make your heart skip a beat. Been there, and in slow-mo tunnel vision you’re watching it unfold as [hopefully] driving instinct takes over and stoppage happens before certain demise. Glad you’re okay.

          • The big V-8 and high-end suspension saved me. But it was very close. About 40 miles farther and I met a snowplow and the last 15 miles was ok. There was another way to get into Flagstaff, through Winslow, but I took the shorter route. There was 0 accumulation at home and 2′ on the road there, 15 miles away or so. Storms here are like that.

  1. The article about early copper mining led me to wonder what archeologists 5,000 from know will think about today’s civilization based on what the dig up.

    Armor. Looks like a lot of physical work to move all of the armor around. Many kudos for the Lord High Executioner.
    AI generated scripts are bound to happen but I think we are a few years away from seeing them. Just think, something to look forward to; scripts geared toward a particular demographic and auto-generated.

    • For some strange reason, when wearing armor, you want the armor to be flexible.

      Which is why the Romans liked maille armor, and why the Euros above are wearing a flexible jack or brigandine, which is small plates riveted to cloth and leather to form a vest. Plate on the arms and legs because those parts aren’t hiding behind a parrying weapon or a shield.

      • Surprisingly decent looking armor sets, there. If it were me (back when I was young enough to have any business being in armor) I’d want to change a few little things, but that’s always the case.


  2. Star Trek should die. As it should have after the (to me) disastrous Enterprise series.
    Lord High Executioner Beans is needed in DC. But better to be safe since there would be only so much that one person could do.
    As both Trump and Elon Musk have found out.
    You all be safe and God bless.

    • Many many moons ago, my father a reserve Air Force officer, was offered a commission if he went to the Pentagon, with a promise to continue on to General stars. Or he could serve out his reserve period and buh-bye.

      He chose to not go to DC. He chose wisely. I follow in his footsteps. The only way I’d go into DC is in an armored thunderrun through the damned place.

  3. Where does Star Trek go from here?

    A Romulan story line that had very little interaction with the Federation might work. It would need to stay away from liberal ideology as that would be against Romulan nature.

    • Back to the roots. Or jump forward a thousand years or so. Oh, wait, that’s already been done, with the “Andromeda” series, which was based on Roddenberry’s thoughts about the far future of the Federation, basically a fallen empire and trying to bring the light to the dark.

      Personally, kill everything after the 2nd season of Enterprise. All of it. The movies, especially the reboot movies. Kill it all.

      Then force all the screen writers and producers to read the Star Trek canon as developed from 1966 to, well, the 2nd season of “Enterprise.” Follow that canon and developed timeline. Any deviation from the ‘history’ as developed will require enough defenestration to stop any deviation.

  4. Love your photo of the giant petrified tree, there were giants in those days.

    “the US Deficit will end up becoming a black hole of financial ruin that will suck all near it into the vortex.”

    Someone once said that “the problem with debt is that someone wants to get paid back.”

    • They had access to tin, zinc and other ‘impurities,’ they just couldn’t innovate their way out of a wet paper bag.

  5. Every other Copper Culture created alloys of copper, making the metals less brittle, less subject to bending, and sharpenable. And every other Copper Culture advanced to making Bronze.

    Will be interesting to use the same techniques to date Native American copper work on other cultures.

    Once again, proving that the Native Americans couldn’t innovate or advance worth squat. Wooo… Basically stuck at Neandtertal levels.

  6. And another thing. Mayhaps there was a die-off of Copper People so the secret of ‘Copper’ disappeared and the survivors, or most likely, the conquerors couldn’t figure out the secrets and just went back to stone tools.

    With Native Americans, especially early NAs, never underestimate the ability of other tribes to damage or destroy other other tribes.

    And then there’s the whole climate change thingy. Mayhaps the same climate change that caused the Sahara to desertify and force the Egyptians to create widespread agricultural projects and water way projects affected the Copper People (like a flood, or even a mini-ice age covering the mines in snow and ice.

    Lots of reasons besides “Copper wasn’t good enough” to explain the shift away from copper tools.

    Heck, it could have been the case that easily obtainable copper wasn’t easily obtainable any more.

    If I can think, in 5 minutes, at least 5 easy ways to explain the shift from copper back to stone, and much simpler to explain than ‘well, it just fell out of favor’ then perhaps the simpler explanations are more likely.

    • Yeah. They weren’t settled and had no meaningful writing, so advancement was very hard, and regression was easy.



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