Head on a Stake
My first reaction was that ancient Vikings knew how to deal with politicians who didn’t serve the interests of the people…
Some 8,000 years ago, the skull of a Scandinavian man in his 50s was impaled on a wooden stake in Sweden. Now, a new facial reconstruction by Swedish forensic artist Oscar Nilsson allows modern viewers to envision this mysterious individual’s prominent cheekbones, blue eyes and brown hair, reports Kristin Romey for National Geographic.
Archaeologists found the man’s cranium—as well as the skulls of eight other adults and one infant—in the boggy sediment of the Kanaljorden excavation site in Motala, Sweden, in 2012. The discovery marked the first archaeological evidence of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers mounting human skulls on stakes.
The Viking Age in Ireland began in the late 8th century when Norse seafarers started raiding monastic sites along the coast. These attacks escalated into more extensive invasions, leading to the establishment of several key settlements.
The Vikings significantly influenced Irish society, both economically and culturally. They facilitated the growth of towns into important trading centers, introducing new trade networks and commodities, including slaves.
By the 11th century, many Vikings had assimilated into Irish society. Their influence persisted in the form of urban development, trade expansion, and cultural amalgamation. This period also saw the introduction of coinage into Ireland.
While conflicts persisted throughout this time, the Vikings and the Irish began to coexist in certain areas as they intermarried and began to exchange customs and languages.
The intermingling of Norse and Irish traditions, although intricate and complex, gave rise to a new ethnic identity known as Gall-Gaidhel, or ‘Foreign-Irish’ (a foreshadowing of the Anglo-Normans who in later centuries would be absorbed into Irish culture only to become “more Irish than the Irish themselves”).
The Viking Age in Ireland ended with the expulsion of the Norsemen by King Brian Boru after defeating them at the Battle of Clontarf, in 1014.
Over the course of more than two centuries, the Vikings left a lasting mark on the social, political, and even physical landscape of the island which is still evident in the names of islands, towns, cities, and even counties and provinces to this day.
(more here) A surprisingly wide variety of bioweapons were available in the ancient world. After all, arrows and spears technically became bioweapons the moment their tips were dipped into poison, excrement, or even simple, microbe-rich dirt. Infected and putrefying corpses, whether animal or human, were readymade bioweapons when dumped into an enemy’s water supply or launched over a city wall, bringing dismay as well as disease.
Not a B-17, a PB-1W