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Subway Cave

An hour’s drive from the White Wolf Mine

A fault line split the tube that once was an underground river during the Laramide Uplift.

We might argue about dates, but the process seems to have been straight forward. The Sedona, Arizona area was a sea bottom 330 million years ago, and the shells of sea creatures formed a layer of limestone that underlies the area today, called the Redwall limestone because of its color, the result of iron oxide deposited in the rocks by water in later eras. The Supai Group of red sandstone, deposited when the area was a floodplain about 300 million years ago, sits atop the Redwall Formation, to a depth of about 600 feet. On top of that is a layer called the Hermit Formation, about 280 million years old, made of sandstone, mudstone and conglomerate.

On top of the Hermit Formation is a layer that 270 million years ago was coastal sand dunes, and is now red sandstone up to 700 feet thick in places. Two more layers of sandstone were then capped by a layer of limestone laid down when the sea returned about 255 million years ago and is known as the Kaibab Formation. There are dinosaur fossils in that layer (no dinosaur fossils have ever been found after 66 million years ago).

The so-called Laramide orogony–a round of mountain building period that created the Rocky Mountains between 80 million and 35 million years ago–lifted the Sedona area and caused cracks that provided channels for water flowing from the new mountains. Water erosion widened the cracks into broad valleys, leaving only islands of the original layers above the Hermit Formation, in the form of the red buttes, spires and towers.



Margaretha Geertruida MacLeod (née Zelle; 7 August 1876 – 15 October 1917) better known as Mata Hari, was a Dutch woman who became famous as an exotic dancer during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. She traveled throughout Europe, performing for wealthy clients.

During World War I, Mata Hari’s career came to an abrupt end when she was accused of spying for the Germans. The French authorities arrested her in February 1917 and charged her with espionage, and subsequently sentenced to death.

The evidence against her was circumstantial, and many believe that she was unfairly targeted because of her reputation as a woman of loose morals (could suck a golf ball through a garden hose).

On the morning of her execution, she was taken from her cell to a nearby courtyard, where she was tied to a stake and blindfolded. She refused to be tied to the stake and even blew a kiss to the firing squad before they fired. She died instantly, hit by several bullets.

Margaretha Geertruida MacLeod née Zelle




Madame Lynx


10 thoughts on “Interim

  1. Geology is a fascinating subject, thanks for the insight into an area of the US I hadn’t looked at before.

    Mata Hari, had never heard the evidence was circumstantial. Leave it to the French.

    One hell of a gun on the Stuka, presumably both guns fired at the same time or is it like the F7Ds in the Air Force where the gun was purposely mounted out on the wing so the plane would turn slightly during a strafing run?

    1. That was the tank-buster version. Two 37mm pods mounted under the wing to where they didn’t get in the way of the propellor.

      It was a good attempt at keeping the Stuka relevant past its prime (which was before the Battle of Britain.) Better planes should have replaced it by 1940, but it took till 43/44 for decent attack craft to come around, and by that time it was too late as even the Russians started getting some sort of air superiority (helped, majorly, by the US and Great Britain, of course, feckless jerks the Soviets were.)

  2. How far down does the split go?

    Steve was rough. A knee to one side of the head and a karate chop to the other side at the same time.

    1. A couple hundred feet into rubble. It could follow the fracture down several thousand feet, though.

  3. Cool header picture. They certainly were effective early on thats for sure. What no siren on the tank buster model?

  4. Thanks, LL! When I was in grade-school, a question teachers always asked was “What Do You Want To Be When You Grow Up?”. Typical kid’s answer was Fireman, Policeman, Doctor, Teacher, etc, etc.

    Not me….I answered “I want to be a Jet Fighter Pilot, just like Lt. Col STEVE CANYON!!“.

  5. While I’m on the topic, and apropos of nothing, had an inspirational end to the day late this afternoon, at the end of a day that sorely needed some. Thought I heard radial engines, which is not uncommon here, and often turns out to be something on the ground that just sounds like one. Not this time. Definitely airborne radials, closing fast, and with a distinct bass note in the sound that spoke POWER. Rushed out the front door just in time to catch a B-29 headed northwest, about 3000 ft AGL. My guess is it was “FIFI”. Love the sound of those engines.

  6. Nice Canyon infographic and wow, Mata Hari, hadn’t thought of her in years but of course she was gorgeous in her day.

    I remember, speaking of these great women, looking at the portrait of Pochahontas in the Ashmolean in Oxford when I was a boy, seriously, it captivated me when I was a kid and there she was, an Elizabethan Lady in the Tudor Court.

    Huh. There’s a book(s) in that I think.

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