This post is anglocentric because if I enlarged it to France or Germany, or elsewhere it would be unwieldy from the point of discussion. I’m not sure how much readers care about the subject but titles can be unwieldy to many of us who don’t have “skin in the game”, so to speak. They are all tied to a feudal system that managed Europe for centuries. Each feudal obligation tied lower bondmen to provide military service to the next higher in the pecking order with a specific number of the feared, sergeants, archers, men at arms, knights, etc. for a specific number of days each year. In some cases, locals were substituted by mercenaries who were hired to perform that bonded military service.

Therefore, people given lands (and serfs) such as knights, were obligated to arm, feed and deliver to the earl, for example, a certain number of soldiers (or armed farmers) for a specified number of days, at their own expense.

Noble titles are still around, if a bit arcane. Counties aren’t run by Counts (or Earls), but in the US anyway each still has a Sheriff (or shire reeve – not technically noble but a royal appointee – but that changed over time as we shall see).  Since England has counties, why don’t the English have Counts? The English found it humorous when their new Norman (French) overlords tried to describe themselves as cuntes, and the Normans quickly took to using the English title instead, taken from Norse (Jarl). In a way, it fit because King (Koenig) came from the Norse as well.

The reforms of the Roman Emperor Constantine separated the civilian and military administration of the Roman provinces a dux became the military commander in each province. The title dux, Hellenized to doux continued in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. And over time Doux became Duke, generally the ruler of several counties or  region with subordinate counts or their earls, depending on where they were.

Early Norman kings (of England and France) who held their lands by the feudal tenure of ‘barony’ (in Latin per baroniam),  was entitled to attend the Great Council which by the 13th century had developed into the English Parliament.  Feudal baronies (or “baronies by tenure are now obsolete in England and without any legal force but any such historical titles are held in gross, which, is to say are deemed to be enveloped within a more modern extant peerage title also held by the holder

William I  introduced the rank of baron in England to distinguish those men who had pledged their loyalty to him. Previously, in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England, the king’s companions held the title of earl, and in Scotland, thane. Barones regis were bound to perform a stipulated annual military service to the king and to attend his council.

Eventually the greatest of the nobles, especially those in the borderlands or “marches”, such as the Earls of Chester or the Bishops of Durham, whose territories were deemed to be palatine (worthy of a prince), referred to their own tenants (with feudal obligation to them) as barons. Such lords of the marches or Marquis, marchese and margrave all had their origins in feudal lords who held trusted positions in the borderlands. The English title was a foreign importation from France, tested out tentatively in 1385 by Richard II but not naturalized until the mid-15th century, and now more often spelled “marquess“.

The title Viscount was in use in Normandy by at least the early 11th century. Similar to the Carolingian use of the title, the Norman  viscounts were local administrators, working on behalf of the Duke. Their role was to judge/administer justice or as castellan of the local castle. Think of Sheriff and Viscount being the same thing except that over time Sheriffs were granted heriditary rights.


  1. In the Mel Gibson movie “Braveheart”, William Wallace was abandoned at a critical moment by the Scottish leader at the time, and Mel called him ‘the Bruce.” Was a ‘Bruce’ in command of a thane, or did Thane’s give orders to Bruces?

    Just curious.

    • Robert the Bruce (Robert of Clan Bruce, or Roibert a Briuis) had claim to the Kingdom of Scotland as did his father before him.

      Scottish titles and lands (in England and France as well as Scotland) made the whole claim to the throne issue very contentious, as the movie, Braveheart depicts. Robert killed his chief rival, was excommunicated, had the excommunication revoked (a lot of money changed hands) and was later recognized by Pope John 22nd as King and he became King of Scotland.

  2. Rex & Dux. It’s a great question, may be the greatest of all Larry. Funny how something so old, becomes new again. Old dead white guys and their ideas. Not so old and dead as some would rather us believe.
    Seems King Alfred and the Tudor king Henry VIII brought the concept of the citizen army to the forefront. Then the revolutionary ideas born out of the turmoil of the Stewart period, and the new power of a reconstructed Parliament, the subsequent power war between the royals and parliament, that led to creation of the revolutionary leaders in the new world. Blackstone sure had a lot to say about all that.
    Given this a lot of thinking. One thing seems clear, Rex today sure has screwed the pooch in a faustian bargain for some pieces of silver. They are not Rex, only usurper rex, who believe they are endowed with some divine powers. The Chinese Mandate of Heaven is poking its head up in more ways than one. There’s gonna be a fight here, it’s inevitable. History teaches us. Tacitus understood.
    Patrick Henry was a remarkable man. Of all the things he said, his remark about this constitution, which all of a sudden shows up at a convention of delegates gathered to work out some issues with the Compact of 13 individual sovereign States in Philadelphia, this instrument of centralized government, a parchment containing many of the same things within it everyone had just sweated gold and blood and lives to get away from: “This beautiful butterfly with poison under it’s wings”.

    There is much to be considered about a certain issue of our time, Prudence, it’s lack in particular quarters, absence there of, in so many parts of our society, by cunning sly design I contend, is probably the greatest issue we face.
    The “NPC’s and the rest of the human extinction movement carry their victim stance to its extreme, it is a very powerful one, intoxicating in its pettiness and spite, that just because you think you are just, or as social justice warriors, what they say and do is right because they think so, absolves them from responsibility for their words and deeds???
    Of course they pooh pooh on the basket of deplorable’s, for their traditionalism, belief in hard won long learned history, loving God Country and culture, and sticking to their codes no matter what, where true tolerance exists. Their “diversity” is dress rehearsal for class/race war, their open borders is invasion in no uncertain terms. What man in his right mind does not arm and equip himself? What THEM fails to recognize is just how mean us good folks get when our codes are ruthlessly violated, and how such folks become manifest, are unstoppable. As in ask the British Empire, or 50,000 of us armed to the fucking teeth free men and woman who showed up on 1-20-2020.

    Nothings so bad it ain’t good for something, and that applies in spades right now. I doubt, can’t see how things could have turned out any other way everything considered. Ordered Liberty is hard. Difficult to maintain. Once the fight for it is over. Who doesn’t rest on their laurels time to time, or get caught up in day to day life. How can somebody hate our great country so much, reckless hate that wants to destroy it all? Good folks don’t do such things.
    Regardless, that good folks do not do the evil things going down speaks volumes. Good people do not even consider committing the corruption and malicious treason we are witnessing. At worst us dirt people are guilty of omission. No excuse certainly. Vigilance is the price of Liberty. But there we are. And as in all things like this, it is the dirt people who effect positive change in this world. Look around, right, see anyone else?
    Me, I believe absolutely in our cause of liberty and our natural God given rights. That we prevail, not because of hope, but as Admiral Stockdale put it so well, we are men who have faith we prevail in the end. Its that manifest thing, it shows up everywhere.

    Empire or Feudalism? (the empire the globo-homo’s created is really a Water Empire, black swans and unknown unknown unknowns cause them to crash & burn, as Tacitus pointed out, it seems indeed an Emperor could be elected from outside the ruling class. Was that guy right or what?)
    (Seems Feudalism is OK for a world without weapons of mass destruction, if your gonna try it, how do you create a mutual support system, alliances that are worthy, compacts that survive local politicks, for things too large for one feudal lord and his tribe to stand against successfully?)

    The Compact of Confederation redux? (the precinct system has much to be admired, but it requires generational perseverance and ordered Liberty, which is very dangerous to the Mob today, but it has the feature of avoiding the follow on generations from getting too lazy because Prudence and foresight becomes a part of the cultural DNA)

    An Hereditary Constitutional Dual Monarchy? (Keeps the royals honest, the politicians in check, a citizen omnibus shares equal powers, the kings have to ask for permission to be involved in certain key legislative and economic things, a total citizen militia based on the Swiss model is an essential indispensable component, lot of Spartan ways fit very nicely into this militia structure, and provides a most anti-fragile element, it’s naturally deterring to prospective enemies, avoids many pitfalls of the centralized tyranny of the constitutional federal government turning into the regulatory and administrative tyranny it is now. Nothing puts the brakes on usurpation than an armed to the teeth and prepared citizenry. The Greeks Roman’s and Spartan’s where onto something, they almost got it, it isn’t so much this idea failed as the men with the power running it dropped the ball. Rex has a lot of duty and responsibility to Dux)

    The circular feature of history is in the cross over phase…
    The resistance is futile crowd see the glass half empty.
    The Men of The West know it is half full.
    THEM, the human extinction movement, is just that, envy and hate.
    The West is NOT finished. The fat lady isn’t even warming up.
    It is all part & parcel of the culture of our 2000 year history of Athenian Grecco/Roman history. Legacy matters.
    Yes mistakes where made. No Men, culture or its civilization is perfect, yet we are the ones who learn from our past. Consistently. Liberty lived is a babe in the woods. It’s about to have it’s coming out kerkuffle. That Zeitgeist is gonna be something pretty awesome.
    If the Long bow changed the entire equation for the potentate, thank God for the Rifle. “They” are desperate to put that genie back in it’s bottle. Not. Gonna. Happen.
    The Colonial Era beginning in 1609 made the 5000 year leap.
    Resistance to tyranny is not so much revolutionary as Liberty is evolutionary.

    The one kind of empire that has the chance of serving all as sovereign men requires a compact:
    Dux honors Rex
    Rex serves Dux
    (the hubris of the ruling class is at it’s peak, it also is how the “elite” have so utterly failed, where they have gone wrong, they appointed themselves overlords, masters of the Men of The West, without the obligations and responsibilities of looking out for Dux’s welfare and interests, why it is inevitable they fail. Thats where they fucked up. Got themselves in a real pickle now too. And created an unmitigated disaster out of the best thing to happen to the race of all Free Men. Shit the whole world. There is more than enough for everyone, but that isn’t good enough for some. Men don’t fight for GDP or standard of living, but they do fight for the codes and hard won things, like kin, ownership of property, self determinism, and self relience born from unfettered economic freedom, that most essential component of Liberty, which created the Golden Goose, creation of personal wealth, to begin with)

    This is what happened on 11-8-2016, what Tacitus observed:
    Ave! Ave! Ave Trump! Ave! Bring us together!
    (and is why the same failed elites fear what Trump represents)

    Regardless of all that, it’s all about guns when you peel away the layers. It is always been about guns at the root. The crux of everything now. The rest is circus. Lots of clowns, lots.
    Ot is our guns that matter now. They always have mattered, but not like this.
    The only way we become people under totalitarian rule of men and not free folks under rule of law, is they get our guns. Everything else is a joke. Its our guns they want, everything they do now revolves around dis-arming us or liquidating us because thats the only way to get rid of the power that grows out of the barrel of OUR guns. All political power grows out of the barrel of the gun. Ultimately.
    Ultimately, all there is, is power.

    Thank God for the modern infantry combat rifle. Nothing like it in all of history. To top that off, it’s property, the first thing. It’s a object of free unfettered wealth too. Thats got to really frost certain arses. For more than waving in the faces of tyrants. It has changed the entire dialectic.

    Laeey, maybe you or somebody else a lot smarter than me can tell me what kind of government or governance is suitable to lets say, 64 Million armed to the teeth Deplorable’s? Whats realisticly possible? Is Trump Rex, and us armed Men of The West Dux? 64 Million who voted for the guy are not wrong. The 50,000 of us who showed up armed to the teeth in Richmond, are not wrong.
    Is Trump, the coming of and ascendence of as some contend, The God Emperor?
    Maybe a uniquely American kind of Empire with key part REX & DUX beholden to each-other is possibly the answer?
    The usurpers among us are definitely terrified of Trump and what trump represents. These people always project, you just have to look for what they are projecting. They have stated thru various proxies that they fear Trump is out to become an emperor. Maybe thats more truth than first blush. They only way anyone becomes Emperor of America is by consent of we who are armed to the teeth and those who support us, who we are united with and in solidarity with. If Trump has only accomplished one thing it’s he has brought many together, is creating unity, in ways not seen since JFK. An Emperor is not the same thing as Empire.

  3. Regardless of all that, it’s all about guns when you peel away the layers. It is always been about guns at the root. The crux of everything now. The rest is circus. Lots of clowns, lots.
    Ot is our guns that matter now. They always have mattered, but not like this.

    Guns and ammo separate free Americans from every other nation on Earth. And they have since our founding. They are the hedge, the last resort, the spoken and unspoken threat to tyranny.

    All political power grows out of the barrel of the gun.

    The leftists, the globalists, the elite (your betters) and the petty tyrants all get it.

    The Constitution stands at the very center of the argument.

    Some years I encountered the Oath Keeper movement. It was comprised of a few weak men, men who had never taken an oath (prison records, etc.) and a lot of undercover police officers, ATF (now BATFE) and FBI types, all of whom I recognized who were recording who said what to whom and about what. They presumed that I was undercover as well, though I was not. I just came to observe.

    The consolidation of individuals into cells and the movement of those cells to action involve identification, recruitment, training and operational tempo – which is what I did for a living for a long time but not in this context. I taught a class on how to conduct planned political kidnapping for years among other courses. The maistro of the craft was COL Boris Pash, US Army/OSS/SOE who did it during World War Two. I use this as an example, on this public blog. The content of the coursework, attended by a lot of Secret Service people intent on protecting their charges, was classified. Or portions were.

    Assembling teams and organizing elements that would set out to accomplish a kidnapping moved in the same way that they would (in large part) to carry out an assassination. And here is my point. Any operation of any sort, that has any value, is carried out with the greatest care, using the best tradecraft under conditions of absolute secrecy. The Clintons have carried out operations and they’ve never been caught. Wonder why? They used people who made sure that they weren’t.

    Americans who brandish firearms or march, won’t ever accomplish what it is that they need to accomplish because half of them are undercover operatives, looking to undermine the movement.

  4. Thanks for this informative teaching post.

    I worked for a Viscount once, which was good because it came with the privilege of a driver and a car. The chauffeur’s name was Finlow, of all things, and he’d been to Marllborough, a prestigious boarding school. I’d remind the Viscount of this and he’d shake and stutter, “I do wish you wouldn’t tell me of this!!!”

    Of course he was a UK Knight of Malta and supplied them with their ceremonial sword which they still use today. It’s a headsman’s sword which my noble pal discovered “in a flea market in Barcelona.”

    His family essentially bought the title thanks to their shipbuilding, don’t say profiteering, efforts in WWI and elsewhere. Here’s the old fella’s mother:

    RIP VF.

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